The Triều Lý dynasty, which ruled Vietnam from 1010 to 1225, played a crucial role in the history of the nation, particularly in the establishment and development of the capital city Thăng Long, which later became known as Hanoi. The construction of Thăng Long Citadel represented a pivotal moment in Vietnam’s cultural, political, and architectural history.
1. The Founding of the Triều Lý Dynasty
In 1010, Emperor Lý Thái Tổ, also known as Lý Công Uẩn, founded the Triều Lý dynasty, marking the end of the previous Đinh and Early Lê dynasties. He emerged as a prominent military leader during the war against the Southern Han (Tống) invaders, leading the Vietnamese people to regain independence.
2. Decision to Establish Thăng Long
To solidify his rule and demonstrate the significance of his new dynasty, Emperor Lý Thái Tổ decided to move the capital from Hoa Lư (in present-day Ninh Bình province) to a more strategic location. The area known as Thăng Long, situated on the banks of the Red River, was selected as the ideal site for the new capital.
3. The Construction of Thăng Long Citadel
The construction of Thăng Long Citadel began in 1010 and continued for several years. The citadel was designed to be a symbol of the dynasty’s power and an administrative center. It featured massive stone walls, guard towers, and well-planned gateways.
4. Influence of Chinese Architectural Principles
The architectural design of Thăng Long Citadel was heavily influenced by Chinese principles, reflecting the cultural and political ties between Vietnam and China at the time. The citadel’s layout was based on traditional Chinese feng shui principles, emphasizing the harmonious alignment with natural elements.
5. Political and Cultural Significance
The establishment of Thăng Long as the capital city marked a significant shift in Vietnam’s political landscape. It became the center of governance and cultural exchange, attracting scholars, artisans, and traders from across the region.
6. Renaming as Hanoi
In 1831, during the Nguyễn dynasty, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed Thăng Long to Hanoi, which means “inside the rivers,” a reference to its location between the Red River and the Nhue River.
7. Legacy and Preservation
Thăng Long Citadel served as the political center of Vietnam for centuries and witnessed many historical events. Despite various renovations and expansions over the years, parts of the citadel were destroyed during conflicts. However, efforts have been made to preserve and restore this cultural heritage site.
The establishment of Thăng Long Citadel during the Triều Lý dynasty marked the beginning of a new era in Vietnam’s history. It not only solidified the dynasty’s authority but also paved the way for Hanoi to become one of the oldest and most culturally significant cities in Southeast Asia. The legacy of Thăng Long Citadel endures today as a symbol of Vietnam’s rich heritage and the enduring spirit of its people.